Bonaparte, Jérôme

b. 15 November 1784, Ajaccio

d. 24 June 1860, Villegenis, near Meudon

Napoleon's brother. Spent the period from 1793-99 at school in Juilly. Napoleon then placed him in the Consular Guard, but transferred him to the navy on 29 November 1800. He then served in the West Indies until 1803. On 24 November of that year, before leaving for France, he married a certain Elizabeth Patterson in Baltimore, though Napoleon refused to recognise the marriage. Jérôme continued to serve in the navy until 1806, when Napoleon made him a general of division, and gave him the command of a corps of Bavarians and Württembergers. He campaigned with these in Silesia. After the treaty of Tilsit, Jérôme was placed on the throne of the new kingdom of Westphalia, with the daughter of the King of Württemberg as his queen. In 1812 he took part in the campaign in Russia at the head of a Westphalian corps. He was forced to leave his kingdom in 1813, and lived in Switzerland, then Trieste. During the Hundred Days, he commanded a division and took part in the battle of Waterloo. After the final fall of his brother, he spent thirty years in exile. When he returned to France he became governor of Les Invalides, and in 1850 was raised to the marshalate. Sources: Balteau, J. and others. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 1933-, vol. 6, p. 916; Michaud. Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, 1843-?, vol. ?.

No biography in Bouvier, F. Bonaparte en Italie, 1796, 1899.

Amur leopards

A personal interest, and nothing to do with history.

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They are perhaps the most endangered animals in the world -- there are only about 30 left in the wild. They desperately need help from humankind. See www.amur-leopard.org.

Unless otherwise credited, original text, translations and photographs on this site are ©2001 Martin Boycott-Brown

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