Charles X of France

b. 9 October 1757, Versailles

d. 6 November 1836, Gorizia

One of the brothers of Louis XVI, he was given the title of Count of Artois by his grandfather, Louis XV. Married Marie-Thérése of Savoy on 16 November 1773. He became an ardent supporter of absolutist ideas. When the Revolution broke out, the King advised him to leave France, and during the night of 16/17 July 1789 he travelled to Belgium. He later spent some time in Turin at the court of his father-in-law, King Victor Amadeus of Sardinia. After the Restoration of the monarchy, he continued to be mixed up in political affairs, and on the death of his brother, Louis XVIII (the former Count of Provence) on 16 September 1824, he ascended the throne as Charles X. He was forced to abdicate on 2 August 1830, and spent the rest of his life in exile. Source: Balteau, J. and others. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 1933-, vol. 8, pp. 536-43; Michaud. Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, 1843-?, vol. 7, pp. 545-59.

Amur leopards

A personal interest, and nothing to do with history.

Amur leopard conservation logo

They are perhaps the most endangered animals in the world -- there are only about 30 left in the wild. They desperately need help from humankind. See

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