Ferdinand, Archduke

b. 1 June 1754

d. 24 December 1806

"Ferdinand Carl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislas von Lothringen, Austrian archduke, Duke of Modena-Brisgau ... He was brother of the Emperors Joseph II and Leopold II (ex-Grand Duke of Tuscany), of Queen Caroline of Naples, of Queen Marie-Antoinette of France, and of the Duchess of Parma. He was uncle of the Emperor Francis II and the Grand Duke Ferdinand, and was also father of the Duchess of Aosta. He married, on 15 October 1771, Marie-Richard-Béatrice d'Este (b. 7 April 1754, d. 14 November 1829), daughter of Duke Ercole III of Modena. In 1808, his youngest daughter, Marie-Louise, married her first cousin, the Emperor Francis II (a widower for the second time), and was thus step-mother to the other Marie-Louise, the future wife of Napoleon and Neipperg. He was governor of Lombardy from 1771." Bouvier, F. Bonaparte en Italie, 1796, 1899, p. 686.

Amur leopards

A personal interest, and nothing to do with history.

Amur leopard conservation logo

They are perhaps the most endangered animals in the world -- there are only about 30 left in the wild. They desperately need help from humankind. See www.amur-leopard.org.

Unless otherwise credited, original text, translations and photographs on this site are ©2001 Martin Boycott-Brown

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