Ferdinand, Grand Duke of Tuscany

b. 6 May 1769

d. 18 June 1824

"Ferdinand Joseph Johann von Lothringen, Archduke of Austria ... He had become Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1790, when his father, Leopold, became Emperor. In the same year he married his cousin, the slightly hunch-backed Princess Marie-Louise-Amélie de Bourbon, a daughter of Queen Caroline of Naples.

Deposed in 1801, on the creation of the Kingdom of Etruria, he was only restored as Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1814, after having accepted the Grand Duchy of Würzburg from Napoleon in 1805 ..." Bouvier, F. Bonaparte en Italie, 1796, 1899, p. 686.

Amur leopards

A personal interest, and nothing to do with history.

Amur leopard conservation logo

They are perhaps the most endangered animals in the world -- there are only about 30 left in the wild. They desperately need help from humankind. See www.amur-leopard.org.

Unless otherwise credited, original text, translations and photographs on this site are ©2001 Martin Boycott-Brown

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