The 1600s

8 Feb 1601   The Earl of Essex leads a rebellion in England.
25 Feb 1601   The Earl of Essex is executed.
24 Mar 1603   Death of Elisabeth I of England at Richmond Palace.
31 Mar 1603   Accession of James VI of Scotland as James I of England.
5 Nov 1605   Gunpowder Plot. A group of Catholics try to blow up King James and the Parliament.
13 May 1607   Virginia is re-colonised by the English. Foundation of Jamestown.
9 Dec 1608   The poet John Milton is born in Cheapside, London.
27 Dec 1611   Accession of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.
23 Apr 1616   Death of William Shakespeare.
1618   Thirty Years War begins in Germany.
29 Oct 1618   Execution of Sir Walter Raleigh in London.
20 Mar 1619   Death of the Holy Roman Emperor Mathias. He was succeeded by Ferdinand II
16 Sep 1620   The Pilgrim Fathers (Puritan settlers) depart for America in the Mayflower
8 Nov 1620   Battle of the White Mountain (nr Prague). Defeat of Bohemia (Frederick of the Palatinate) at the hands of Tilly.
21 Dec 1620   The Pilgrim Fathers land at Plymouth in Massachusetts
Mar 1621   Death of Philip III of Spain, accession of Philip IV
4 May 1624   Richelieu (later cardinal) becomes a minister of the French king.
27 Mar 1625   Death of James I of England. Accession of Charles I.
27 Aug 1626   Battle of Lutter. Christian IV of Brunswick defeated by Tilly.
2 May 1629   Peace of Lübeck brings an end to Danish intervention in Germany.
29 May 1630   Birth of the future King Charles II of England.
31 Mar 1631   Death of the poet John Donne.
9 Aug 1631   Birth of the poet John Dryden at Aldwincle, Northamptonshire.
17 Sep 1631   Gustavus Adolphus wins the battle of Breitenfeld.
29 Aug 1632   Birth of the philosopher John Locke.
20 Oct 1632   Birth of (Sir) Christopher Wren, architect.
16 Nov 1632   Battle of Lützen. Wallenstein is defeated, but Gustavus Adolphus is killed. Accession of Queen Christina of Sweden
15 May 1633   S. L. P. de Vauban (later Marshal of France) born in Saint-Léger-de-Foucherest
15 Feb 1637   Death of the Emperor Ferdinand II.
5 Sep 1638   Birth of the Dauphin, the future Louis XIV of France.
10 Jan 1642   Charles I of England leaves London. The English Civil War begins.
Dec 1642   Death of Cardinal Richelieu
25 Dec 1642   Birth of (Sir) Isaac Newton, scientist.
14 May 1643   Death of Louis XIII of France, accession of Louis XIV.
24 Oct 1648   Treaty of Westphalia brings an end to the Thirty Years War
26 May 1650   John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough) born at Ash in Devon
1 Jul 1654   L. J. de Vendôme (later Duke) born in Paris
Jul 1658   Leopold I elected Holy Roman Emperor
18 Oct 1663   F. E. de Savoie-Carignan (Eugene of Savoy) born in Paris
1682   Accession of Czar Peter the Great.
5 May 1682   J. B. F. D. de Maillebois (later Marshal of France) born in Paris
Jun 1683   Beginning of the siege of Vienna by the Ottomans
14 Jul 1683   Siege of Vienna raised by Jan Sobieski
1685   The future Charles VI of Austria is born
6 Feb 1685   Death of Charles II of England and Scotland, accession of James II
23 Feb 1685   G. F. Handel born in Halle
21 Mar 1685   J. S. Bach born in Eisenach
22 Oct 1685   Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
1687   Publication of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
24 Sep 1688   Beginning of the War of the League of Augsburg (Nine Years War)
21 May 1688   Birth of Alexander Pope
Nov-Dec 1688   Glorious Revolution. Flight of James II from England, arrival of William and Mary.
1689   Birth of Baron de Montesquieu.
13 Feb 1689   Declaration of Rights. Establishment of Constitutional monarchy in England.
7 May 1689   Beginning of war between France and England.
3 Aug 1689   L. I. de Berchény born in Eperjes, Upper Hungary
1690   Publication of Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
Mar 1692   Hanover becomes ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire
27 Jul 1694   Establishment of the Bank of England.
21 Nov 1694   F. M. Arouet (Voltaire) born in Paris
28 Dec 1694   Death of Queen Mary from smallpox
1696   Publication of Toland's deistical work Christianity Not Mysterious.
10 Aug 1696   J. W. L. Liechtenstein born in Prague
1697   Augustus II of Saxony elected King of Poland
20 Sep 1697   Treaty of Ryswick. End of the Nine Years War between France, England and her allies.
26 Jan 1699   Treaty of Carlowitz between Austria, Russia, and Turkey. Austria obtains Hungary, Transylvania and Croatia from Ottoman Empire
14 May 1699   J. von Zieten born in Wustrow, Neu-Ruppin, Brandenburg

Amur leopards

A personal interest, and nothing to do with history.

Amur leopard conservation logo

They are perhaps the most endangered animals in the world -- there are only about 30 left in the wild. They desperately need help from humankind. See

Unless otherwise credited, original text, translations and photographs on this site are ©2001 Martin Boycott-Brown

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